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A careful comparison of the four Gospels Matthew, Mark, and Luke are noticeably similar and John is quite different. Because Matthew, Mark, and Luke are all in agreement they are called the Synoptic Gospels. – Note: NIV The Synoptic Gospels.
Each of the Synoptic Gospels
basically tells the same story – differently!
There are 4 Gospels telling the “Good News”
the life, suffering, death,
and resurrection of Jesus Christ?
Say loudly the accent on the BOLD print.
Repeat this several times with enthusiasm!
For me this is the definition of the Synoptic Gospels. After a “He is Alive” presentation by David Forbus, Choir director of Northgate UMC, this understanding of the Synoptic Gospels became clear.
Parables of Jesus
The Synoptic Gospels (Similar Gospels)
Miracles of Jesus
The Synoptic Gospels (Similar Gospels)
The Synoptic Gospels
The Synoptic Gospels are the Gospels of Mark, Matthew, and Luke. They are called “synoptic” because of their unique similarities and their unique differences!
· The most common theory is that Mark was written first.
· Both Matthew and Luke had access to Mark’s Gospel.
· Both Matthew and Luke used material from the earlier Gospel of Mark.
· Matthew and Luke also both wrote material that are only contained in their Gospels (Material that they wrote themselves called “M” and “L”.)
· There is also material that is common to Matthew and Luke but not found in Mark.
· Scholars also believe that both Matthew and Luke both had access to another source called “Q” from the German “Quelle” meaning “source.”
· This material consist mainly of the Sayings of Jesus.
· Jesus probably spoke Aramaic, but the Gospels were written in Greek.
Gospel of Mark:
1 The beginning of the good news about Jesus the Messiah, the Son of God,
2 as it is written in Isaiah the prophet:
Mark’s Gospels begins with John the Baptist Prepares the Way (Mark 1:1-15)
· Early Ministry: Jesus preaches, teaches, and heals. (Mark 1:16-6:6) (Mark 6:7-8:21)
· Jesus is “On the Way” to Jerusalem. (Mark 8:22-10:52)
· Jesus encounters opposition. (Mark 11:1-13:37)
· Passion Narrative: Jesus’ Last Supper, arrest, trial, crucifixion, death, and burial. (Mark 14:1-15:47)
· The women find Jesus’ tomb empty (Mark 16:1-8)
· Verses Mark 16:9-20 are not original but were added later.
· The earliest manuscripts and some other ancient witnesses do not have verses Mark 9–20.
· Introductory Verse: Mark1:1
1 The beginning of the good news about Jesus the Messiah, the Son of God, 2 as it is written in Isaiah the prophet:
· Jesus Accused by His Family and by Teachers of the Law (Mark 3:20-35)
· Parable of the Growing Seed (Mark 4:26-29)
· Jesus heals a deaf and mute man in Decapolis.
· Jesus heals a blind man at Bethsaida. (Mark 8:22-26)
· A young man runs away naked after Jesus’ arrest.
· Jesus rises from the dead – The Commissioning of the Eleven: (Mark 16:14-18)
15 He said to them, “Go into all the world and preach the gospel to all creation.
The Gospel of Matthew
· The Genealogy of Jesus the Messiah (Matthew 1:1-17)
· Jesus’ infancy narrative (Matthew 1:18-25)
· Sermon on the Mount First Discourse (Matthew 5-7)
· Missionary Instructions Second Discourse(Matthew 10) Jesus send out the Twelve.
· Parables Third Discourse Parable of the Sower, Weeds, Mustard Seed and Yeast, Parable of the Weeds explained, Hidden Treasure and Pearl, Parable of the Net.
· Instructions to the Community Fourth Discourse (Matthew 18-19:22) Definition for eschatological
· Fifth Discourse (Matthew 23-25)
· The Passion and Resurrection of Jesus Christ:
· (Matthew 26) Plot against Jesus, Jesus Anointed at Bethany, Judas betrays Jesus, The Last Supper, Jesus predicts Peter’s denials, Gethsemane, the Arrest of Jesus, Jesus before the Sanhedrin,
(Matthew 27) Judas hangs himself, Jesus before Pilate, soldiers mock Jesus, the Crucifixion of Jesus, Death of Jesus, and the Burial of Jesus.
· (Matthew 28) The Resurrection of Jesus Christ.
· The Great Commission 16 Then the eleven disciples went to Galilee, to the mountain where Jesus had told them to go. 17 When they saw him, they worshiped him; but some doubted. 18 Then Jesus came to them and said, “All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to me. 19 Therefore go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, 20 and teaching them to obey everything I have commanded you. And surely I am with you always, to the very end of the age.”
Material Only Found in the Gospel of Matthew
· 1 This is the genealogy[a] of Jesus the Messiah[b] the son of David, the son of Abraham:
· The genealogy of Jesus.
· The Infancy of Jesus:
· Dreams of Joseph (Matthew 1:18-25)
· The Birth of Jesus (Matthew 2:1-2
· The Magi visit the Messiah (Matthew 2:1-9)
· Flight into Egypt. (Matthew 2:13-18)
· Massacre of the Infants of Bethlehem.
· Return from Egypt. (Matthew 2:19-23)
· Jesus teaches about the Law (Matthew 5:17-20)
· Anger/Murder (Matthew 5:21-26)
· Adultery (Matthew 5:27-30)
· Oaths (Matthew 5:33-37)
· Giving to the Needy and Fasting (Matthew 6:1-8 & 6:16-18)
· Pearls and Pigs (Matthew 7:6)
· True and False Prophets (Matthew 7:15-17)
· Jesus’ Conclusion to the Sermon on the Mount. (Matthew 7:28-29)
28 When Jesus had finished saying these things, the crowds were amazed at his teaching, 29 because he taught as one who had authority, and not as their teachers of the law.
· Jesus heals the blind and the mute. (Matthew 9:27-31)
· The Compassion of Jesus/The Workers are Few (Matthew9:35-38)
· Persecutions (Matthew 10:22-23)
· (Matthew 11:1) 1 After Jesus had finished instructing his twelve disciples, he went on from there to teach and preach in the towns of Galilee.
(Matthew 11:28:30) 28 “Come to me, all you who are weary and burdened, and I will give you rest. 29 Take my yoke upon you and learn from me, for I am gentle and humble in heart, and you will find rest for your souls. 30 For my yoke is easy and my burden is light.”
· Parable of the Weeds among the Wheat. (Matthew 13:24-30)
· The Parable of the Weeds Explained. (Matthew 13:3643)
· (2) Parables of the Hidden Treasure and the Pearl (Matthew 13:44-46)
· Parable of the Net. (Matthew13:47-52)
· Peter attempts to walk upon the water to Jesus. (Matthew 14:28-31)
· (Matthew 16:17-19)
17 Jesus replied, “Blessed are you, Simon son of Jonah, for this was not revealed to you by flesh and blood, but by my Father in heaven. 18 And I tell you that you are Peter, (The Greek word for Peter means rock.) and on this rock I will build my church, and the gates of Hades (the realm of the dead) will not overcome it. 19 I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven; whatever you bind on earth will be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth will be loosed in heaven.”
· The Temple Tax (Matthew 17:24-27)
· Dealing with sin in the church. (Matthew 18:15-20)
· Parable of the Unmerciful Servant. (Matthew18:21-35)
· Jesus’ teaching on divorce. (Matthew 19:10-12)
· Parable of the Workers in the Vineyard (Matthew 20:1-6)
· Parable of the Two Sons (Matthew 21:28-32)
· Warnings Against Hypocrisy, Seven Woes on the Teachers of the Law, Pharisees, and Scribes. (Matthew 23)
· Parable of the Ten Virgins/Bridesmaids. (Matthew 25:1-13)
· Parable of the Sheep and Goats. (Matthew 25:3146)
· The Death of Judas (Matthew 27:3-10)
· Pilate Washes his Hands (Matthew 27:24-25)
· The Raising of the Saints (Matthew 27:52-53) … 52 and the tombs broke open. The bodies of many holy people who had died were raised to life. 53 They came out of the tombs after Jesus’ resurrection and went into the holy city and appeared to many people.
· The Guard at the Tomb (Matthew 27:62-66)
· The Guards Report (Matthew 28:11-15)
· The Great Commission (Matthew 28:16-20) 16 Then the eleven disciples went to Galilee, to the mountain where Jesus had told them to go. 17 When they saw him, they worshiped him; but some doubted. 18 Then Jesus came to them and said, “All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to me. 19 Therefore go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, 20 and teaching them to obey everything I have commanded you. And surely I am with you always, to the very end of the age.”
Material in other Gospels but vary significantly in the Gospel of Matthew.
· The Genealogy of Jesus. In Matthew genealogy begins with Abraham. Matthew 1:1-17
Compared to the Genealogy in Luke:
The Gospel of Luke
· The foretelling of the births of John the Baptist and Jesus. (Luke 1:1-38)
· The Birth of John the Baptist (Luke 1:57-66)
· The Birth of Jesus. (Luke 2:1-21)
· Preparation of Ministry
· John the Baptist Prepares the Way.
· The Baptism of Jesus Christ.
· Jesus in the Wilderness. (Luke 4:1-13)
· The beginning of Jesus’ Ministry: Preaching, Teaching, and Healing.
· Journey to Jerusalem
· Jerusalem Ministry
· The Passion Story of Jesus Christ
· Judas betrays Jesus.
· The Last Supper.
· Jesus prays at the Mount of Olives.
· Jesus arrested.
· Peter’s Denials.
· Jesus before Pilate and Herod.
· The Crucifixion of Jesus Christ.
· Death and Burial of Jesus.
· The Resurrection of Jesus Christ.
· On the Road to Emmaus.
· Jesus appears to his Disciples.
· The Ascension of Jesus Christ into Heaven.
Material only found in the Gospel of Luke.
· Dedication to Theophilus. (Also dedicated to Theophilus in Acts also written by Luke.)
· The Birth of John the Baptist foretold. (Luke 1-25)
· The Birth of Jesus foretold. (Matthew 1: 26-38)
· Mary visits Elizabeth.
· Mary’s Song (The Magnificat)
· The Birth of John the Baptist.
· Zechariah’s Song
· Birth of Jesus.
· Jesus Presented at the Temple.
· The Boy Jesus at the Temple.
· John the Baptist replies to the crowd. (Luke 3:10-14)
· Jesus is Rejected at Nazareth. (Luke 4:14-30
· Jesus calls his first Disciples. The calling of Simon Peter. (Luke 5:1-11)
· Four “Woes” added to the end of the Beatitudes. (Luke 6:24-26)
· Jesus Raises a Widow’s son in the town of Nain. (Luke 7:11-17)
· Galilean Women Follow Jesus (Luke 8:1-3) 2 and also some women who had been cured of evil spirits and diseases: Mary (called Magdalene) from whom seven demons had come out; 3 Joanna the wife of Chuza, the manager of Herod’s household; Susanna; and many others. These women were helping to support them out of their own means.
· Much of Luke 9:51 – 18:14 Jesus and his Disciples Journey to Jerusalem.
· Samaritan Opposition,
· Jesus sends out the Seventy-Two.
· Parable of the Good Samaritan Luke 10:25-37
· Mary and Martha
· Parable of a Friend at Midnight. Luke 11:5-13
· Parable of the Rich Fool Luke 12:13-21 Warnings Against Avarice Insatiable greed for riches; inordinate, miserly desire to gain and hoard wealth.
· Parable of the Barren Fig Tree.
· Jesus heals a crippled woman on the Sabbath.
· Healing of a Man with Dropsy (Abnormal swelling of his body.)
· Parable of the Great Banquet Luke 14:15-24
· Parable of the Pharisee and the Tax Collector/Publican
· Zacchaeus the Tax Collector (Luke 19:1-11)
· Jesus weeps for Jerusalem (Luke 19:39-44)
· Some of Jesus’ words at the Last Supper. 15 And he said to them, “I have eagerly desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer. 16 For I tell you, I will not eat it again until it finds fulfillment in the kingdom of God.”
17 After taking the cup, he gave thanks and said, “Take this and divide it among you. Luke 22:15-17
31 “Simon, Simon, Satan has asked to sift all of you as wheat. 32 But I have prayed for you, Simon, that your faith may not fail. And when you have turned back, strengthen your brothers.”
· Jesus before Pilate and Herod (Luke 23:2-16)
· On the Way to the Cross, Jesus speaks to the women “Daughters of Jerusalem” who weep for Jesus Christ. (Luke 23:27-31)
· The Repentant Thief. * 34 Jesus said, “Father, forgive them, for they do not know what they are doing.” And they divided up his clothes by casting lots.
Some early manuscripts do not have this sentence/verse.
(Luke 23:39-46) 39 One of the criminals who hung there hurled insults at him: “Aren’t you the Messiah? Save yourself and us!”
40 But the other criminal rebuked him. “Don’t you fear God,” he said, “since you are under the same sentence? 41 We are punished justly, for we are getting what our deeds deserve. But this man has done nothing wrong.”
42 Then he said, “Jesus, remember me when you come into your kingdom.”
43 Jesus answered him, “Truly I tell you, today you will be with me in paradise.”
(Luke 23:46) 46 Jesus called out with a loud voice, “Father, into your hands I commit my spirit.” When he had said this, he breathed his last.
· Jesus appears to his Disciples on the Road to Emmaus. Luke 24:13-35
· Jesus appears to his Disciples in Jerusalem Luke 24:36-49